Integrated Constructed Wetlands are used as a complete system and are only preceded by settlement ponds or tanks for primary treatment.

Integrated Constructed Wetlands do not require tertiary treatment post ICW and have a very low capital and maintenance costs compared with traditional wastewater treatment plants.


They are particalarly suited to small towns and villages where land may be relatively inexpensive and also to landfills and mine closures where toxic leachate is a big issue.

Towns & Village

The ICW concept was developed in the 1990’s in the Anne Valley in Co. Waterford where a number of farm ICWs were used to treat dirty farmyard water and to improve the quality of water in the Annestown Stream.


Prior to 1990, water in the Annestown Stream was of very poor quality with little or no fish life and has subsequently improved to near good status with the return of sea trout to the stream after many years of abscence.

In recent times there are a number of ICWs serving municipal waste from small towns and villages.

Public Parks

ICWs have also been used for the improvement of waterways in the greater Dublin area. 


Polluted surface water streams are being treated by ICWs and the areas have subsequently served as recreational areas and parks for the local communities.

This type of amenity helps to create an awareness of the importance water quality among the local population while also increasing the presence of wildlife and in turn increasing biodiversity.

Landfill Sites

ICWs have in recent times been used to treat leachate from landfill runoff.